... is an independent city in Baden-Württemberg, seat of the administrative district of Karlsruhe, the Middle Upper Rhine region and the district of Karlsruhe. Historically, Karlsruhe is the capital and residence of the former state of Baden. The city is bordered in the north, east and south by the district of Karlsruhe and in the west by the Rhine, which forms the border with Rhineland-Palatinate here. After Stuttgart (around 80 km east) and Mannheim (around 60 km north), Karlsruhe is the third largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg and has an area of around 173 km². Karlsruhe has been the seat of the Federal Court of Justice since 1950 and of the Federal Constitutional Court since 1951, which is why the city is nicknamed the Residence of Law.